In order to continue the study of variation and amplification of AFP, the beam is also analyzed in the linear regime. If we compare Figure 9a, b), it is obvious that linear behavior significantly increases the AFP, which leads to values greater than 1.5 times the limit value proposed by ASCE 7-16. This behaviour has also been observed in other steel buildings (z.B. Flores et al. 2015). This result could mean that the attitude of industrial engineers to analyze linear piping beams for safety reasons could affect the seismic safety of non-structural components. Each pipe holder design should ensure 20% future growth. Check the customer`s requirements. Some customers need an additional 25% for rack widths up to 16m and an additional 10% for width over 16m. EIL PDB: 25% Alternative Randanitets zu Erweiterung is shown below. After all the pipes have been run into the tube, the installation setup designer must begin to locate the spandrels needed to support all these lines. The following figure shows how to manage needs. If statisticians need an additional spleder for the stability of the tube, they must bring this requirement to the attention of the installation developer.
The following figure shows some variations of Spandrel`s design. In addition, an important parameter in the design and evaluation of a piping beam system, which significantly increases the risk due to potential uncertainties, refers to dynamic interaction and the type of piping supports. The EN codes do not address the issue at all, while the AM codes offer some empirical rules regarding mass and period, which are discussed below. While the issue is crucial to the safety of industrial facilities, research is rather limited. For example, in Azizpour and À Hosseini (2009), a series of parametric analyses were carried out on a piping system and its support structure, taking into account different configurations such as the number of tubes supported or the different diameters of the pipe, the end conditions and the diameter of the fittings (U rings). The authors concluded that the frequency of the system could be significantly influenced by the type of attachment elements (diameter of the compounds). To avoid wasting valuable rack space with large support columns, the inside of the support column must line up with the inside of the device`s support column, as shown in the next figure. The crucial importance of undedified structures, which make up petrochemical/oleochemical refineries, is significantly higher than that of ordinary refineries, as failure of non-structuring components may occur later in neighbouring units and in the Community. Accidents in chemical facilities are numerous and frequent, endangering human lives and the environment.
There are two important examples in Europe, Namely, the 2017 and 2018 fire explosions at the Sannazzaro oil refinery in northern Italy and the Vohburg refinery in southeastern Germany, which caused human injury, extensive damage to facilities and forced local authorities to consider evacuations of surrounding communities due to toxic substances scattered throughout the atmosphere. In addition, the seismic integrity of this type of plant was and remains a priority on the corporate agenda, due to their intrinsic relationship to the economic resilience of communities at the regional and/or supraregional level.